Bifacial solar modules

Bifacial or double-sided PV modules use the sun’s rays on both the front and back of the modules to generate electricity. The bifacial modules are mounted vertically instead of horizontally, making it possible to achieve higher electricity yields than is the case with conventional modules.


A blockchain is a digital, decentralised database for transactions between one or more parties. The data blocks of the transactions (‘block’) are linked together (‘chain’) and updated over time. The database is located on many computers instead of on a single server, meaning that it can’t be tampered with.


Call for tender

The tendering model involves certain renewable energy capacities being defined and then publicly tendered. Energy suppliers can participate in these tenders with power plants, with the decisive factor being the price at which the companies can offer renewable energy.

Calorific value

The calorific value indicates the total amount of chemically bound energy contained in a substance, which is then released through processes such as combustion.


CCS stands for Carbon Capture and Storage and refers to processes in which the CO2 produced (e.g. from power plant exhaust gases) is captured and permanently stored underground, thereby preventing the CO2 from escaping into the atmosphere.

Climate neutrality

Climate neutrality means reducing greenhouse gas emissions from activities and processes to a minimum while, at the same time, offsetting them by implementing climate protection measures elsewhere.

Cogeneration plants

Cogeneration plants are plants that combine heat and power generation. Cogeneration plants produce mechanical energy (which is converted into electricity) and heating (which is fed into the district heating network) at the same time.

Compensatory and balancing energy capacities

The balancing energy is required if there are (unforeseen) fluctuations (e.g. the failure of a power plant) in energy consumption within a distribution grid area, helping to compensate for differences between feed-in and consumption for a short period of time.

Control area manager

The European transmission grid has been divided into control areas in order for the flow of energy in the European network to be monitored from a technical standpoint. These areas are supervised and managed by control area managers.



Decarbonisation refers to the process of moving away from carbon-based (fossil) fuels in the energy industry, with the aim being to replace these energy sources with renewable ones.


Demand-side management regulates the demand for grid-based services (such as energy consumption) among industrial and trade customers as well as private households. Demand-side management results in lower demand without having to increase grid supply (such as by generating more power).


Empty piping

When constructing buildings, empty piping is deliberately installed in order for additional infrastructure to be added at a later stage (such as fibre-optic cables).


FTTH | Fibre to the Home

FTTH means that the fibre-optic cable is laid all the way into the home itself. The fibre-optic cable normally ends in a junction box in the wall. This is in contrast to FTTC (Fibre to the Curb), where the fibre-optic cable stops at a distribution box at the side of the road. FTTB (Fibre to the Building) means that the fibre-optic cable ends in the building (at the building transition point). FTTD (Fibre to the Desk) is where the fibre-optic cable is laid all the way up to the end device itself.



Grid connection capacity

The connected load is the maximum output provided by an energy supplier at a connection point via the grid, whether this is the electricity grid, the district heating network or the natural gas grid.

Governance Regulation

The EU Governance Regulation ensures that the energy and climate targets of the individual EU member states are met by 2030. These targets had to be set by the federal provinces in their National Energy and Climate Plans. The Commission ensures that Member States meet their regular reporting requirements while working to achieve their objectives.


IoT | Internet of Things

The Internet of Things is a global infrastructure that enables physical and virtual devices to be networked with each other, thereby making it possible to work together (e.g. smart homes).



A kilowatt peak (kWp) is a unit of measurement that indicates the capacity of a photovoltaic system. A PV system with a capacity of 1 kWp generates about 1,000 kWh of electricity per year.


Level Playing Field

A level playing field requires the same framework conditions and rules for all competitors on the market.



The megawatt is a unit for specifying energy output. 1 MW is equivalent to one million watts. Megawatts are used for PV systems to indicate the capacity of the systems.

Market premium

The market premium is paid to electricity producers who offer and sell their electricity on the energy market independently.



A prosumer is both the consumer and producer of a product (e.g. solar energy). For example, energy is produced by a PV system on the roof and consumed by the owners themselves.


Quota system

A quota system within the framework of the National Energy and Climate Plan refers to the obligation of energy suppliers to include a certain proportion of renewable gas in their energy mix.


Sector coupling

Sector coupling refers to the networking of the energy industry sectors, with the focus here being on taking a holistic view of the areas of electricity, the supply of heating and cooling, transport and industry.

Spikes in demand

These are periods in which the demand for output in the electricity or heating network is temporarily very high.

Supplier commitment

Energy suppliers in Austria must provide evidence of energy efficiency measures taken by themselves or their own end customers in the following year when a minimum sales volume of 25 GWh is achieved.


Tax on self-generated energy

The tax on self-generated energy is levied on solar electricity generated and consumed by the producer themselves.


TWh stands for terawatt hour. One terawatt hour corresponds to the amount of energy generated converted within one hour with a power plant capacity of 1 TW. 1 TWh corresponds to 1 trillion-watt hours.


Short for transformer. A transformer converts input AC voltage into output AC voltage using two copper wire coils and a magnetic core. As such, an input voltage of 240 volts can be transformed to 12 volts of output voltage.



Wallboxes are e-charging stations that are mounted on the walls of houses or garages. They are mainly used for charging electric cars in privately owned spaces.


5G | Fifth generation mobile Internet

The 5G mobile network offers transmission rates of up to 10 Gbit/s, more than the predecessor network 4G. 5G will also open the door to new applications such as IoT services.